• Pilot Study: What is the impact of explicitly teaching Growth Mindset theory?

    Pilot Study: What is the impact of explicitly teaching Growth Mindset theory?


    Despite the weight of evidence around Growth Mindset as a strong indicator of student achievement, there remains a lack of hard evidence as to how exactly affect that disposition. The EEF trialled various interventions in 2013 and found that the results were not statistically significant. Whilst researchers may be able to observe Growth Mindset as a valid psychological state, how to actually have an impact on that state remains somewhat unclear.

    Many Growth Mindset interventions take the form of superficial interpretations of the original research in the form of posters, assemblies and simplistic tasks. This appropriated approach can often lead to students switching off to the core messages behind the research and the interventions not having any real impact.

    After our initial year 1 study which sought to get some larger baseline data on exactly what dispositions our students had in these areas, we wanted to ‘zoom in’ and test a specific approach with a smaller group, and look closely at the effect of teaching this theory explicitly as opposed to tangentially.

    This pilot study proposes to evaluate the impact of teaching an intervention group of students the theory around Growth Mindset in an academically rigorous way using research literature and articles in the form of a course designed by Harvard faculty of education researchers.

    Harvard project year 2.001


    Control and intervention groups comprising of year 12 students selected randomly will take a baseline test using Dweck’s scales before and after the study. The intervention group will receive a term’s worth of weekly sessions looking closely at the research on Growth Mindset and applying it to their own context. These sessions will feature explicit instruction of the theory in its raw form, and follow-up coaching conversations with individual students.

    Previous studies have shown the efficacy of ‘stealth’ interventions where students were not made to feel stigmatised by being singled out for interventions based on poor attainment, enabling the students to bring more of an open mind to the project. This was an important consideration in this project.


    Harvard project year 2.002

    Next Steps:

    This pilot study was trialled in the winter term and will be evaluated by researchers from Harvard GSE in the spring with the results published later this year. If successful, a larger trial may be rolled out to other year groups and time built into tutorials to use the same approach. This same course is also being run at Highbury Grove under the supervision of head of research Sara Stafford and head teacher Tom Sherrington to be able to test the impact in different contexts.


  • Mayor’s Excellence Fund Project

    Mayor’s Excellence Fund Project

    Project Title: Pedagogical approaches to delivery of a knowledge-led, content-rich GCSE and A Level curriculum: Learning from Independent Schools.
    Subject: Maths, English, Biology, Chemistry and Physics
    Key Stage: 4 & 5
    Project Description: The project will link state and independent school teachers together in order to identify and utilise the strategies used by independent schools to ensure high levels of knowledge and achievement for GCSE and A-Level students.

    Excellence 435x200Mayor_of_London_supportedby_180x150_0Christ the King Sixth Form College has been chosen to lead an innovative new project, working in partnership with Eton College, North London Collegiate, St Paul’s Boys School and Wellington College. Google are also a partner, who will help the project develop a number of virtual networks for teachers.  This exciting initiative is part of the Mayor of London’s Schools Excellence Project.

    The two-year project will be investigating the strategies that independent schools utilise to ensure their pupils achieve top exam grades, and how they secure places for their students at Russell Group universities in such large numbers. The aim is to understand whether these strategies are transferable to the state sector and whether than can they be scaled up to be made available to a wider community across London.

    The London Schools Excellence Fund was launched by Boris Johnson in 2013 and the CTK project is one of the largest within the scheme. It will involve Christ the King maths, English and science teachers working with a number of prestigious independent schools. CTK staff will undertake lesson research with their independent school counterparts, and hosting similar visits from the independent school teachers. The intention is to identify best practise in subject-specific teaching, recognising and harnessing teacher strengths wherever they are seen.

    The use of new technologies will be explored in partnership with Google and innovative ways to share subject and teaching expertise will be modelled. A London-wide independent state School brokerage will also be launched, so that partnership between the state and independent sectors is encouraged, supported and sustainable.


    For more read here and here.

  • Lesson-study, design based research and professional development.

    Lesson-study, design based research and professional development.


    Dr. Chris Brown, Institute of Education. 

    In this article Chris Brown reports on the Haverstock primary to secondary transition project. Designed to improve the experience of transition to secondary school for vulnerable pupils in Camden (London), the project uses Lesson Study to help primary and secondary practitioners work together to develop effective cross-phase pedagogical approaches to teaching English/literacy and science.


    Connecting research to practice is notoriously problematic. Much has been written, for example, regarding whether the ‘evidence-informed’ movement serves to work against practitioners’ professional judgment (e.g. see Biesta, 2007; Brown, 2014). Likewise, there exists issues in relation to how formal academic knowledge and professional or tacit knowledge might be effectively combined (Stoll, 2009; Brown, 2013). Furthermore are the still very active and virulent disputes surrounding some of the methods commonly associated with enhancing evidence use (e.g. randomized control trials and the process of systematic review – see Maclure, 2005; Nutley et al., 2007; Brown, 2013). A further aspect of note centers on how practitioners’ capacity to engage with academic research might be enhanced (e.g. Hargreaves, 1996; Cooper et al., 2009). This issue is also intertwined with the notion that much academic research is inaccessible to teachers, both in terms of where it is published and the language that is typically used within such publications (Hillage et al., 1998; Tooley and Darby, 1998).

    The idea of Design Based Research (DBR) (sometimes referred to as Design-Based Implementation Research) has been positioned as one way to overcome many of these issues (Penuel et al., 2011; Coburn et al., 2013), with Vanderlinde and van Braak (2010) explicitly suggesting that DBR approaches should be used to close the research practice gap. Described by Anderson and Shattuck (2012: 16) as an approach “designed by and for educators that seeks to increase the impact, transfer, and translation of education research into improved practice”; DBR in addition “stresses the need for theory building and the development of design principles that guide, inform and improve both practice and research in educational contexts” (ibid). Anderson and Shattuck (2012: pp.16-17) go on to suggest a number of important definitional Design Based Research attributes:

    That DBR must be situated in a real educational context;

    DBR should focus on the design and testing of a significant intervention;

    It will involve iterative refinement of that intervention to improve its operation and builds on/iron out past mistakes;

    DBR must involve a collaborative partnership between researchers and practitioners; and

    The process of DBR leads to the development of design principles reflecting the conditions within which the intervention operates.

    Coburn et al., (2013) suggest that DBR may be differentiated from other approaches that seek to connect research to practice because: 1) with DBR, the distinction between the roles of practitioners and researchers is blurred (i.e. practitioners and researchers are mutually responsible for developing theory and embedding solutions); and 2) collaboration occurs in real time throughout the project rather than concentrated at the beginning (scoping) and end (debrief). DBR thus represents a shift from the traditional perspective of research and practice being two distinct activities, with the former being able to unambiguously influence the latter (Vanderlinde and van Braak, 2010), and towards the simultaneous build and study of solutions. As Coburn et al., (2013: 8) suggest: “[DBR has] two goals of equal importance… develop materials and instructional approaches that can be implemented in classrooms, schools and districts. At the same time… to advance research and theory”. 


    Lesson Study has been described as a ‘teaching improvement process’ that has origins in Japanese elementary education, where it is a widely used professional development practice (Dudley, 2014). As a process, Lesson Study involves teachers collaborating, normally in groups of three, to progress cycles of iterative practice development. Such cycles typically involve the following steps: 1) a discussion of student learning goals and the identification of a teaching strategy that might meet these; 2) planning an actual classroom lesson (called a ‘research lesson’) that employs this strategy; 3) observing how the lesson works in practice; and 4) discussing and embedding revisions to enable improvement. In the Japanese model, teachers also report on and often hold public demonstrations of the lesson so that other teachers can benefit from their learning (Dudley, 2014). In addition three pupils, who represent wider groups of interest, will be observed and their progress monitored as case studies of the impact of the approach (ibid). In itself, Lesson Study can be considered a form of Joint Practice Development (JPD), a process described by Fielding et al., (2005) as involving developing ways of working through collaborative engagement that, as a result, opens up and shares practices with others. And whilst Lesson Study does have a number of distinctive characteristics, its underpinning mechanism, as with other JPD approaches, involves a process that is truly mutual, rather than one-way, with the practice concerned being improved rather than simply moved from one person or place to another.


    The Camden Partnership for Educational Excellence (CPEE) was set up in April 2012 with the vision to make the London Borough of Camden “the best borough for education”. The CPEE aims to drive forward the recommendations of the Camden Education Commission (an independent commission jointly established by Camden schools and Camden Council to take a long term perspective regarding strengthening education in the borough), which highlighted key issues and opportunities for Camden schools in the light of the changes to the English education landscape. In 2013, the CPEE Board invited schools, colleges, partners and stakeholders to bid for funds from a £2 million pot set up to support innovative ways of working and projects to raise achievement and attainment. In particular, to find ways of improving outcomes for the most vulnerable groups of students. A key requirement of the CPEE’s bid call was that school improvement projects should be based on the Lesson Study approach. This followed the appointment to Camden Local Authority/the CPEE Board of a staunch Lesson Study advocate who had been involved in the process for a number of years both in the UK and abroad (see Dudley, 2014).


    A key finding from the Camden Education Commission’s final report was that, particularly for vulnerable students “transition arrangements [within Camden] at present are not consistently good enough” (2011: 5); correspondingly it argued improving these should be a central focus of improvement efforts moving forward. In particular, it suggested that there should be a better understanding between year 6 and 7 teachers (teachers of students aged 11-12) of the pedagogy and practice of teaching and learning in each other’s institutions, which would both assist them in preparing students for success and in supporting students to flourish in their new environments (2011: 36). In response to the report and the invitation by CPEE board for organizations to bid for funding for projects, colleagues from Haverstock school (Camden) and the Institute of Education, University of London teamed up to develop a project that might serve to address some of the commission’s concerns in relation to transition. 

    Our first step was to undertake a review of the international literature on the issue of primary to secondary transition, enabling us to situate our proposal within a suitable theory of learning (Penuel et al., 2011) As a result, the review enabled us to centre our proposed bid to CPEE around the following three notions: 

    That transitions are at their strongest when: “the social, emotional, curricular and pedagogical aspects of learning are managed in order to enable pupils to remain engaged with, and have control of, their learning” (DCSF, 2008: 5; also see McGee et al., 2004; Evangelou et al., 2008). 

    That whilst a myriad of initiatives have been undertaken to tackle the social and emotional aspects of learning (especially for more vulnerable pupils: e.g. see Shepherd and Roker, 2005), Galton et al., (1999: 6) argue that: “there are still problems at transfer with curriculum continuity”; and that 

    Such continuity serves, however, to maintain pupils’ interest in learning, allows them to progress in their learning, and so helps them avoid the internationally observed learning hiatus that seems to accompany transition (McGee et al., 2004; Evangelou et al., 2008). 

    As a result, the Haverstock Primary/Secondary Transitions project was conceived with the purpose of bringing together primary and secondary teachers from the London Borough of Camden in order that they might employ Lesson Study to develop effective cross phase pedagogical approaches/strategies to teaching English/literacy and Science to support the transition of year 5 to year 8 students: in other words to provide hitherto lacking consistency/continuity in the way students across the phases were taught these two subjects. In particular, the project focused on two vulnerable groups: i.e. those students most at risk in terms of their progress post transition. Within this project we consider ‘vulnerable’ as contingent on pupils ability to make a successful academic, social and emotional transition from Year 6 to Year 7. Our scope thus includes pupils entitled to Free School Meals (FSM); “and pupils from some ethnic groups (which ones depending on the particular subject being assessed)” (Galton et al., 1999: 22; Tree, 2011): in this case, white British students (closing the gap for White working class students is a high priority both within Camden Local Authority and within the English context. For example the Camden Partnership of Educational Excellence highlighted this group as being the cohort with the most underachievement overall). We also sought to include more able pupils not fulfilling their potential. 

    Jointly directed by colleagues from Haverstock school and the Institute of Education, the specific aims of the project were to improve student and teacher outcomes in relation to:

    Improved rates of progress and attainment for ‘vulnerable’ pupils within each of years 3-8 (ages 8 through to 13).

    More robust, challenging and innovative but also consistent pedagogic practice at National Curriculum level 1-8 in English and science (levels represent how pupils progress in relation to England’s National Curriculum) and assessment practices through years 5, 6, 7, & 8 (ages 10 through to 13).

    Shared teacher confidence using these practices as well as in planning work and moderation of leveling in their subject in English and science from levels 1 to 8 in order to assess progress.

    A group of teachers able to use Lesson Study approaches to improve classroom practice and impact on standards, thus building transferable capacity.

    The project main phase (which commenced in September 2014) comprises a pilot and main phase, with the latter involving 18 schools engaged in:

    Nine Lesson Study sessions throughout the course of the academic year.

    A workshop to examine both interim impact and to look at cross-phase approaches to assessment/moderation.

    A workshop to examine both interim impact and cross-phase approaches to data transfer.

    Participating schools were also brought together to design final resources for the project with the aim that resources can be used by schools within the borough and more widely.

    A knowledge mobilisation and end of project workshop.


    Primary and secondary schools have their own particular ways of working and these are not especially well suited to fostering cross phase collaboration. For instance, primary teachers will teach all subjects to one cohort of pupils for an entire year. In contrast, secondary school teachers will specialise by subject area and so will teach that one subject to a number of different classes. In addition, using Lesson Study is a new phenomenon in English schools and using Lesson Study in a cross phase way (to tackle issues of transition) rarer still. Baring in mind the particular ways of working of each phase and that neither the researchers or practitioners involved in the project had engaged in Lesson Study activity before, it was decided that a pilot phase of five months with a small group of schools be run in order that researchers and practitioners could collaborate in trialling the approach and ascertaining how it might be made fit for practice: in other words to enable a Designed Based Research approach to the development and implementation of a Lesson Study approaches. That is, in keeping with Anderson and Shattuck (2012) we (i.e. participating teachers from these schools, the Assistant Head project lead from Haverstock school, and researchers and facilitators from the Institute of Education) sought, as a collaborative partnership, to design, test and refine cross-phase Lesson Study in a real educational context, with a view to establishing a basis for its future roll out.


    A key aspect of this approach was the establishment of a theory of action for Lesson Study: in other words, to determine which aspects of Lesson Study were an integral part of a logical chain leading to improved student outcomes and which were more open to contextual manipulation (Argyris and Schön, 1996; Cherney and Head, 2011). A mutually developed theory of action has been shown to have significantly positive impacts on the effectiveness of interventions they relate to (Lemons et al., 2014) and so is a vital aspect of DBR. As noted above it is argued that, as a form of Joint Practice Development, Lesson Study involves collaborative engagement that serves to open up and share practices. As such, the development of our theory of action for Lesson Study centred on how adults can learn from and build upon the best practice of their peers through interaction. This led us to the constructivist mode of learning which posits the idea that, in instances of effective learning, new understanding is not simply digested but engaged with as part of a social process of adoption, accommodation and assimilation (Black and Wiliam, 2001; James et al., 2007). This means that new information will be filtered through past experience, knowledge and understanding; implying that the process of new learning must start via the exploration of existing ideas as well as the encouragement of those who holding them to express and defend them. As a result, these ideas can be surfaced and made explicit, the importance of which is illustrated by James et al., who suggest that: “unless learners make their thinking explicit to others, and so to themselves, they cannot become aware of the need for conceptual modification” (2007: 17). The social constructivist approach further augments the constructivist notion of learning by emphasizing the interactive element of learning: i.e. the idea that learning proceeds via interaction within a social milieu. 

    In order to facilitate this learning, we turned to the literature on Professional Learning Communities. Whilst there is no universal definition of a Professional Learning Community (PLC), they are usually depicted as a situation in which people involved with and concerned about teaching and learning, work collaboratively to learn about how they can improve pupil learning or outcomes (Stoll, 2008; Harris and Jones, 2012). In particular we looked at the nature and structure of the ‘learning conversations’ that take place as part of PLC activity. Described as “deep, sustained conversations among teachers about matters of teaching and learning” (Stoll and Louis, 2007: 79) and “the way that educators make meaning together and jointly come up with new insights and knowledge that lead to intentional change to enhance their practice and student learning” (Stoll, 2012: 6), learning conversations comprise considered thoughtful (rather than superficial) discussion and challenge, focused on matters of teaching practice, that consider evidence of actual and potential forms of practice and that are undertaken with a view to developing both improved practice (i.e. new solutions to issues) and, as a result, outcomes for students. Moving deeper into this area, Stoll (2012: pp. 6-11) suggests that the following are features characteristic of high quality learning conversations between adults: 

    Focus on evidence and/or ideas. Learning conversations are focused, with the specific focus reflecting one of two important perspectives. First, the conversation’s focus can centre on existing and effective practice within the school/network. Second reflects ideas about innovation and transformation where, for example, the conversation explores creative ways to engage learners and extend learning. Because second focus will require elements of the first, many conversations weave these two perspectives together.

    Experience and external knowledge/theory. Access to outside expertise deepens learning conversations. Whether delivered personally, through writing, or via other media, independent ideas are injected to stimulate reflection, challenge the status quo and extend thinking. Such ideas can help promote greater depth in conversations. 

    Protocols and tools. Learning conversations can often be framed more clearly when supported by frameworks and guidelines that help participants structure their dialogue and interrogate evidence or ideas.

    Facilitation. Facilitation isn’t the same as external expertise. It can come from inside or outside the group, but it’s needed to elicit and support intellectual exchange, as well as maintaining open dialogue and, sometimes, injecting new energy into the conversation. Skilful facilitation can often lead to a productive balance of comfort and challenge.


    These four elements, plus the four steps outlined above) thus formed the basis for how we initially thought to structure and operationalize Lesson Study activity. As a result it was decided by the project team that the pilot phase should commence with a one day facilitated workshop in which practitioners held data informed discussions about the key issues their vulnerable students faced in relation to Engish/literacy and Science. Before the workshop the Assistant Head project lead from Haverstock school, and researchers and facilitators from the Institute of Education spent a day developing protocols and tools to facilitate learning conversations and planning activity within the workshop (based on approaches used by Stoll: e.g. see Stoll and Brown, forthcoming). Using these, participants worked through a series of activities designed to help them decide upon one focus area (a topic being taught that encapsulated the issue) and to also think about a common approach to teaching the topic in relation to the issue that triads could adopt, implement and iteratively improve. Following this, participants were asked to identify three students within each school that represent the focus (vulnerable) students and to then collaboratively plan the first research lesson that would be taught/observed. 

    In keeping with the notion that it is expertise with respect to a given intervention that enables practitioners to tailor interventions to their specific situation, and that the development of expertise involves both aspects of effective learning and sustained skill refinement (practice) (see Bryk et al., 2011; Penuel et al., 2012; Lemov et al., 2013; Brown and Rogers, 2014) the pilot phase then involved three full Lesson Study days. These involved practitioners: 1) revisiting the purpose of the lesson and the focus area that it linked to; 2) being talked through each phase of the lesson and what its aims and goals were; 3) observing how the lesson worked in practice (with a focus on the case children); 4) interviewing the case children for their perspectives on the issues; 5) a facilitated discussion to evaluate the lesson (what went well and what would have made the teaching activity even better); and 6) building on what had happened (i.e. collaboratively establishing how to improve the pedagogic approach), planning for the next Lesson Study research lesson. Again, before the first Lesson Study day, the project team spent a day together collaboratively developing protocols, tools and an outline for the day to facilitate the Lesson Study process. The Lesson Study activity was also observed by the project team in order to give us an understanding of how it was being enacted.


    Throughout the pilot phase, time and space was created to enable researchers and practitioners to deliberate and discuss what researchers and practitioners had learned and their experiences in relation to Lesson Study. Through this dialogic process we were able to construct common understanding and meaning with regards to both aspects of the process and in terms of the use of tools and protocols to facilitate the process. As a result were then able to understand which aspects of the approach were successful in helping participants develop their practice and improve outcomes for the most vulnerable and which appeared to provide limited value. In other words, as Gutierrez and Penuel (2014: 20) suggest: “[s]tudying the ‘social life of interventions’ [helped us] move away from imagining interventions as fixed packages of strategies with readily measurable outcomes and towards more open-ended social or socially embedded experiments that involve ongoing mutual engagement. To ensure the learning from the pilot phase, at the end of the three Lesson Study days, a one-day workshop was held so that the main phase could be collaboratively developed. Aspects here included the nature of the ‘kick-off’ event that would introduce ‘main stage’ participants to the process and the types of exercises and tools to be used as part of this event; the grouping and sequencing of Lesson Study days throughout the year (bearing in mind the distinct ways of working that each phase of schooling has); the nature (running order) of each Lesson Study day; the nature of the tools and protocols to be employed as part of each main phase Lesson Study session; and how impact should be conceived of and measured (see below).

    What was also viewed as important by both participants and the project team, however, was that, as we scaled the project up from pilot to main phase, the dialogic process that enabled us to understand and iteratively improve the operation of Lesson Study could continue at scale. Perhaps one of the main issues of the DBR approach as currently conceived is that it is very researcher intensive: in other words that it requires researchers working intensively with small numbers of practitioners. The failure of evidence to make a widespread and sustained impact on the practices of teachers is an international phenomenon however (Bryk et al., 2011; Taylor, 2013) and, despite considerable activity, the development of system-wide processes for the effective connecting and applying of research and professional knowledge remain underdeveloped (Gough et al., 2011). An imperative then must be to find ways of examining how DBR approaches can impact on maximal numbers of teachers.To overcome this, practitioners and researcher jointly agreed on the need for distributed ownership: if DBR at scale is an unmanageable task for researchers alone, then researchers cannot be the only actors involved in creating meaning – practitioners experienced in the deliberative process should also be able to move beyond their traditional roles and engage in this way too (Coburn et al., 2013). This agreed upon approach to capacity building meant that we were able to use the original pilot group members as practitioner-researchers who could form new triads and engage with practitioners involved in the project’s main stage. This freed time for the researchers to work with other groups of ‘main stage’ practitioners and both sets of researchers could then meet periodically to consider ongoing improvements and changes that needed to be made to the Lesson Study methodology.


    Interim impact data illustrates that the DBR approach to Lesson Study has been successful in enabling us to build researcher practitioner’s capacity in relation to: 1) understanding and evaluating impact; 2) cross phase collaboration; and 3) engaging in, managing and tailoring a process of cross-phase Lesson Study. Such capacity building is a direct result of the DBR approach: in other words engaging in DBR activity has enabled practitioners to develop an understanding of the theory of action underpinning Lesson Study: that is, how could we ensure the effective enactment of learning conversations so that best practice could be established and iteratively improved. Capacity building is also a vital precursor to the project’s ongoing sustainability: i.e. its propensity to self sustaining once funding ends and the research team can no longer be involved (Coburn, 2003; Gutierrez and Penuel, 2014). It is only when practitioners take ownership of an initiative that it will continue and, it is argued, feelings of ownership will flourish if practitioners have been involved in the creation and development of an initiative. It has also provided much needed scalability: with each new round of Lesson Study those involved in the previous round can now work with two new practitioners but still continue to develop and refine the approach.

    In terms of the wider group of participants, impact data shows that teachers are better able to identify ways of improving practice that impacts on the outcomes of their students and receiving feedback so that their improvement efforts can develop iteratively. To ascertain impact, participants were surveyed each term and asked to consider in relation to their baseline data, their desired outcomes and Lesson Study observation and other data available to them. Specifically impact focussed on two main questions:

    What difference has Lesson Study activity made to your practice? How do you know?

    What difference has Lesson Study activity made in terms of pupil outcomes? How do you know?

    Examples of some of the responses here include:

    “My pupils are able to be more specific about skills in writing.  I now have a clear structure and success criteria for how they collaborate to identify successes and next steps. They can use it to apply grammar knowledge. All pupils have made at least one point progress”.

    “When we have used the process developed in the lesson study, the writing has always been improved by the pupils. Also, the process has helped pupils with their communication skills, ability to describe specific aspects of writing and range of ideas used in improved writing”.

    “The impact of this has been evident in lessons where I have used the improvement marking strategy that we explored as part of LS and many students in my classes have made good progress with the introduction of this technique in my practice”.

    “Many pupils have displayed increased confidence when discussing and revising work. I have noticed a marked improvement in second drafts of assessments”.

    “I have developed a greater awareness of strategies that can be used to enable pupils to learn scientific vocabulary”.

    Results from the main phase will be available in late 2015. Watch this space.


    Anderson, T. and Shattuck, J. (2012) Design-Based Research: A Decade of Progress in Education Research, Educational Researcher, 41, 1, pp. 16-25.

    Argyris, C. and Schön, D. (1996), Organizational learning II:  Theory, method, and practice, (Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company). 

    Biesta, G. (2007) Why ‘What Works’ Won’t Work: Evidence-based Practice and the Democratic Deficit in Educational Research, Educational Theory, 57, 1, pp. 1-22.

    Black, P. and Wiliam, D. (2001) Inside the Black Box: Raising standards through classroom assessment, available at:, accessed on 14 July 2014.

    Brown, C. (2013) Making Evidence Matter: A New Perspective on Evidence-Informed Policy Making in Education, (London, IOE Press).

    Brown, C. (2014) Evidence Informed Policy and Practice in Education. A Sociological Grounding, (London, Bloomsbury).

    Brown, C. and Rogers S (2014) Knowledge creation as an approach to lead evidence informed practice in early years settings: Examining ways to measure the success of using this method with early years practitioners in Camden, London. Presented at the American Educational Research Association, Philidelphia PA, 3-7 April, 2014.

    Bryk, A., Gomez, L. and Grunow, A. (2011) Getting ideas into action: Building Networked Improvement Communities in Education, in Hallinan, M. (ed) Frontiers in Sociology of Education, Frontiers in Sociology and Social Research (Dordrecht, NL, Springer

    lesson-study, design based research and professional development

    Camden Education Commission: (2011) Camden Education Commission: Final report (Camden Children’s Trust Partnership Board and London, London Borough of Camden).

    Cartwright, N. (2013) Knowing what we are talking about: why evidence doesn’t always travel, Evidence & Policy, 9, 1, pp. 97-112.

    Cherney, A. and Head, B. (2011) Supporting the knowledge-to-action process: a systems-thinking approach, Evidence & Policy, 7, 4, pp. 471-488. 

    Coburn, C. (2003) Rethinking scale: moving beyond numbers to deep and lasting change, Educational Researcher, 32, 6, pp. 3-12.

    Coburn, C., Penuel, W. and Geil, K. (2013) Research-Practice Partnerships: A Strategy for Leveraging Research for Educational Improvement in School Districts, (New York, NY, William T. Grant Foundation).

    Cooper, A., Levin, B. and Campbell, C. (2009) The growing (but still limited) importance of evidence in education policy and practice, Journal of Educational Change, 10, 2-3, pp. 159-171.

    Department for Children Schools and Families (2008) The National Strategies. Strengthening transfers and transitions: partnerships for progress, available at:, accessed 5 September, 2013.

    Dudley, P. (2014) Lesson Study: A handbook, available at:, accessed on 21 July 2014.

    Earley, P. and Porritt, V. (2013) Evaluating the impact of professional development: the need for a student-focused approach, Professional Development in Education, DOI: 10.1080/19415257.2013.798741

    Easton, J. (2013) Using measurement as leverage between developmental research and education practice. Talk given at the Center for the Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning, Curry School of Education, University of Virginia, Charlottesville. 

    Erickson, F. and Gutierrez, K. (2002) Culture, rigor, and science in educational research, Educational Researcher, 31, 8, pp. 21-24.

    ESTYN (2004). Recommendations on implementation of transition provisions in the Education Act 2002, (Cardiff: ESTYN). 

    Evangelou, M., Taggart, B., Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., and Siraj-Blatchford, I. (2008) What makes a successful transition from primary to secondary school, (Nottingham, Department for Children Schools and Families).

    Fielding, M., Bragg, S., Craig, J., Cunningham, I., Eraut, M., Gillinson, S., Horne, M., Robinson, C. and Thorp, J. (2005) Factors influencing the transfer of good practice, available at:, accessed on 21 July, 2014.

    Galton, M., Gray, J. and Rudduck, J. (1999). The impact of school transitions and transfers on pupil progress and attainment, (Nottingham, Department for Education and Employment).

    Gough, D., Tripney, J., Kenny, C., Buk-Berge, E. (2011) Evidence informed policymaking in education in Europe: EIPPEE final project report summary, available at:, accessed on 11 September 2012. 

    Gutierrez, K. and Penuel, W. (2014) Relevance to Practice as a Criterion for Rigor, Educational Researcher, 43, 1, pp. 19-23.

    Hargreaves, D. (1996) The Teaching Training Agency Annual Lecture 1996: Teaching as a research based profession: possibilities and prospects, available at:, accessed on 14 January 2013.

    Harris, A. and Jones, M. (2012) Connect to Learn: Learn to Connect, Professional Development Today, 14, 4, pp. 13-19.

    Hillage, L., Pearson, R., Anderson, A. and Tamkin, P. (1998) Excellence in Research on Schools, (London: DfEE).

    Howe, A. (2011) Managing primary-secondary transfer: lessons learned?, in Howe, A. and Richards, V (eds) Bridging the transition from primary to secondary school, (Abingdon, Routledge).

    Husbands, C. and Pearce, J. (forthcoming) Great pedagogy: nine claims from research, (Nottingham, National College for School Leadership).

    James, M., McCormick, R., Black, P., Carmichael, P., Drummond, M.J., Fox, A., MacBeath, J., Bethan M., Pedder, D., Procter, R. Swaffield, S., Swann, J. Wiliam, D. (2007)

    Improving learning how to learn: classrooms, schools and networks, (London, Routledge).

    Lemov, D., Woolway, E. and Yezzi, K. (2013) Practice Perfect: 42 Rules for Getting Better at Getting Better, (San Francisco CA, Jossey Bass).

    Lipskey, M. (1980) Street-level bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the individual in public services, (New York, Russell Sage Foundation).

    MacLure, M (2005). ‘Clarity bordering on stupidity’: where’s the quality in systematic review?, Journal of Educational Policy, 20, 4, pp. 393-416

    McGee, C., Ward, R., Gibbons, J and Harlow, A. (2004) Transition to secondary school: a literature review, (Hamilton, the University of Waikato).

    Moss, G. (2013) Research, policy and knowledge flows in education: what counts in knowledge mobilisation, Contemporary Social Science: Journal of the Academy of Social Sciences, DOI: 10.1080/21582041.2013.767466.

    Nutley, S.M., Walter, I. and Davies, H.T.O. (2007) Using evidence: How research can inform public services, (Bristol, The Policy Press).

    Penuel, W., Fishman, B., Haugan, C. and Sabelli, N. Organizing Research and Development at the Intersection of Learning, Implementation and Design, Educational Researcher, 40, 7, pp. 331-337.

    Penuel, W., Sun, M., Frank, K. and Gallagher, A. (2012) Using Social Network Analysis to Study How Interactions Can Augment Teacher Learning from External Professional Development, American Journal of Education, 119, 1, pp. 103-136.

    Lemons, C., Fuchs, D., Gilbert, G. and Fuchs, L. (2014) Evidence-Based Practices in a Changing World: Reconsidering the Counterfactual in Education Research, Educational Researcher, 43, 5, pp. 242-252.

    Shepherd, J. and Roker, D. (2005) An evaluation of a ‘transition to secondary school’ project run by the National Pyramid Trust, available at:, accessed on 4 September 2013. 

    Stoll, L. (2008) Leadership and policy learning communities: promoting knowledge animation, in: Chakroun, B. and Sahlberg, P. (eds) Policy learning in action: European Training Foundation Yearbook 2008, (Torino, Italy, European Training Foundation).

    Stoll, L. (2009) Knowledge Animation in Policy and Practice: Making Connections, Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association as part of the symposium Using Knowledge to Change Policy and Practice, available at:, accessed on 23 January, 2014.

    Stoll, L., (2012) Stimulating Learning Conversations, Professional Development Today, 14, 4, pp. 6-12.

    Stoll, L. and Louis, K. S. (2007) Professional Learning Communities: Divergence, Depth and Dilemmas, (Maidenhead, Open University Press).

    Sutherland, R., Ching Yee, W., McNess, E. and Harris R. (2010) Supporting learning in the transition from primary to secondary schools, available at:, accessed on 5 September, 2012.

    Taylor, M. (2013) Social science teachers’ utilisation of best evidence synthesis research, New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 48, 2, pp. 35 – 49.

    Tooley, J. and Darby, D. (1998) Educational Research: a Critique, (London, Ofsted).

    Tree, J. (2011) What helps students with challenging behaviour make a successful transfer to secondary school? (D.Ed.Psy Dissertation, University of London, Institute of Education).

    Vanderlinde, R. and van Braak, J. (2010) The gap between educational research and practice: views of teachers, school leaders, intermediaries and researchers, British Educational Research Journal, 36, 2, pp. 299 316.

    Witt, M. (2011) Mathematics and transition, in Howe, A. and Richards, V (eds) Bridging the transition from primary to secondary school, (Abingdon, Routledge).

  • Modern foreign languages in the primary and secondary school: Teaching the new National Curriculum

    Modern foreign languages in the primary and secondary school: Teaching the new National Curriculum

     Screen Shot 2014-09-14 at 19.38.14






    The University of Reading are delighted to be able to offer free and extensive CPD for primary and secondary school language teachers through funding from the DfE, co-delivered by experienced local teachers and University tutors.

    The programme will begin with a whole day of input and activities, followed by monthly twilight sessions and will end with a half-day event. French language upskilling sessions will be provided for primary teachers in addition, each month.

    DfE funding allows us to be able to make a substantial contribution to supply costs for teachers attending the first and last event plus a minimum of three twilight sessions.

    The programme will be of benefit for all those teaching languages, especially colleagues leading languages provision in schools, as well as those new to delivering primary languages. The language of focus for primary colleagues will be French; for secondary colleagues, sessions will include examples in French, German and Spanish.

    Sessions will include:

    •   Creating a joined up KS2-3 curriculum for languages
    •   Developing core oral skills, including accurate pronunciation and spontaneous oral interaction
    •   Literacy skills in the foreign language – including reading for comprehension, appreciation and vocabulary development
    •   Developing grammatical competence across Key Stage 2 and 3
    •   Developing learners’ listening skills
    •   Assessment
    •   Primary-secondary transition

    Session 1: Whole day, Friday 10 October, 09.30-15.30, Institute of Education: The new National Curriculum across Key Stages 2-3 and principles of effective teaching and learning; developing learners’ listening skills; assessment and evaluation; transition issues.

    Further details of subsequent sessions can be found overleaf.

    As well as gaining a wealth of practical ideas, participants on the programme will also enhance their understanding of the principles that underpin effective language learning. On-line support activities for use between sessions will be available.

    Toreserveyourplace,pleasegotothefollowinglink: Further information will be emailed to you a week before the first event. orphone01183782612

    Twilight Sessions
    Session 2 (Speaking): 16.30-18.30, Thursday 6 November, The Willink School RG7 3XJ
    Session 3 (Speaking): 16.30-18.30, Wednesday 3 December, The Willink School RG7 3XJ Session 4 (Reading): 16.30-18.30, Thursday 15 January, The Piggott School RG10 8DS
    Session 5 (Reading/writing): 16.30-18.30, Wednesday 4 February, The Piggott School RG10 8DS Session 6 (Grammar): 16.30-18.30, Thursday 5 March, The Piggott School RG10 8DS

    Session 7 (Sharing practice; transition): Half day, Wednesday 25 March, 13.30-16.30, IoE
    Additional French language tuition will be offered on the following dates for primary teachers, with all

    sessions held at the University:
    Thursday, 23 October, 17.00-19.00
    Thursday, 20 November, 17.00-19.00 Thursday, 11 December, 17.00-19.00 Thursday, 22 January, 17.00-19.00
    Thursday, 12 or 19 February (TBC), 17.00-19.00

    We will pay for one day’s supply cover for teachers who attend the first and last event plus a minimum of three twilight sessions, with schools asked to fund the remaining half-day. There are no further costs for the CPD. Further details will be emailed out with joining instructions before the first event.

    This CPD is being delivered as a consortium led by the University of Reading and involves the following partners:

    •   Bartholomew School, Eynsham
    •   Cherwell School, Oxford
    •   Fair Oak Junior School
    •   Keep Hatch Primary School
    •   Oxford University Department of Education
    •   Radstock Primary School
    •   The Willink School, Burghfield Common
    •   Wellington College Teaching School Partnership
    •   Wokingham Secondary Federation 


    MFL CPD 

  • Measuring the unmeasured impacts of schools.

    Measuring the unmeasured impacts of schools.


    Identifying the factors that may influence success inside and beyond the classroom 

    Dr Simon Walker, Lead Researcher, Human Ecology Education


    Previous studies have shown that the Affective (a word for emotional) and Social factors (AS factors) measured in this study develop over childhood. Young children (in year 3-6) show AS scores indicating they seek novelty and change and exhibit a high trust in themselves, coupled with a low trust of others and a low willingness to disclose. As children develop through to adolescence and then adulthood, these AS biases diminish, indicating a growing ability to self-regulate appropriately for the situation rather than just be driven by internal drives.


    CAS development over childhood

    CAS development over childhood


    This is true across different populations of same-age children. For example, here are AS profiles of four different year 10 cohorts from four different UK schools. Each school was in a different part of the country and were of different school type (independent, day, boarding, academy).

    In fact, what is true of Affective Social scores also appear to be true of Cognitive scores. In the above chart, we have added perspective, processing and planning- Cognitive factors- to form a CAS profile. The students CAS profile is just as remarkably consistent as their AS profile.

    However, this does not mean that school is having no impact on children’s CAS development. In 2013 we tested what impact schools have on student CAS scores.

    Our Footprints CAS technology can measure the CAS profile of children when they are OUT of school and also measure it when they are IN school. This can give us an indication of the impact the school is having on the Cognitive, Affective and Social development of its students.

    For example, this chart shows the dark blue CAS profile of one of the above schools when its yr 10 students are OUT of school. The light blue profile which is overlaid, then shows the profile of those SAME students when they are IN school.

    Clearly this school is having a big impact on the student’s trust of others, trust of them self, their desire to embrace change and their planning!

    And different schools appear to have different impacts. Here’s a second school in which the OUT of school highs and lows of the seven factors are more or less levelled out when IN school.

    Contrast this with a third school, in which the OUT of school and the IN school profile are almost identical.

    So, our research suggests that different schools have a different impact on CAS (Cognitive, Affective Social) development of their students.

    The question is, what’s the significance of those impacts? Does it matter that different schools have different impacts? Do those different impacts contribute to different student outcomes? Might those different impacts have a bearing, for example, on students’ academic outcomes, or their ability to manage social situations, or their aspirations?

    Previous studies suggest they might. For example, we have already shown that a student’s ability to adjust their CAS state to an optimal state as they move from curriculum lesson to curriculum lesson (i.e. from maths, to english to science) correlates with higher academic outcomes. See Results suggest that this ability may in fact, account for up to 10-15% of secondary student academic outcomes.

    If CAS scores have an impact on academic outcomes, it seems likely that they may also have an impact on non-academic outcomes. For example, employability, or attractiveness to universities, or leadership qualities.

    The CAS profile was originally developed by Human Ecology Education’s parent company in the 2000s as a measure of leadership mobility. It is used successfully to help employers select and train their internal leaders by indicating whether candidates have the requisite skills to adapt into the varied tasks, contexts and relationships required in the work place. It seems likely, therefore, that student CAS scores could have a bearing not just for success in the classroom but beyond school in the workplace.

    We hope that this current state-independent dividend school study will shed some further light onto CAS and its impact in determining student educational outcomes. We hope it will help us understand whether different models of schooling have different impacts on CAS development. We hope it will highlight if there are gender differences in CAS development and what educational experiences are most likely to boost CAS development, so that our country’s education can be as effective as it possibly can.

    Dr Simon Walker, Lead Researcher, Human Ecology Education

    August 2014



    Academic edu page.